Investors get lost in Big Oil’s carbon accounting maze

LONDON (Reuters) – Broad variations in the way in which oil corporations report their efforts to cut back carbon emissions make it tough to evaluate the chance of holding their shares because the world shifts away from fossil fuels, senior fund managers say.

FILE PHOTO: Guests stroll via a maze at an amusement park on the “Ponomaryovo” farming enterprise within the settlement of Krasnoye in Stavropol area, Russia July 19, 2017. REUTERS/Eduard Korniyenko/File Picture

Buyers have poured cash into so-called sustainable funds, which take into consideration corporations’ environmental, social, authorized and different requirements, and funds are underneath strain from their clients and authorities to make these requirements strong.

Fund managers are additionally making use of environmental, social and governance (ESG) standards extra broadly in conventional investments to assist them decide how corporations will fare over the long run.

There’s a rising realization that some corporations’ earnings will shrink quicker than others as governments prioritize low-carbon vitality to fulfill the U.N.-backed Paris settlement’s purpose of reducing emissions to “internet zero” by the tip of the century.

However oil and gasoline corporations are among the many greatest dividend payers, and main funds are reluctant to divest from them, arguing that by staying in they’re in a greater place to strain corporations to enhance.

“Do buyers have the information that we want? No, I don’t suppose we now have the information that we want in any respect,” mentioned Nick Stansbury, funding strategist at British insurer Authorized & Common’s funding administration unit, Britain’s greatest asset supervisor with round $1.three trillion underneath administration.

“Disclosure shouldn’t be essentially so we will search to alter the numbers, however so we will begin understanding and pricing the dangers,” Stansbury mentioned.


There are various voluntary initiatives and frameworks to unify carbon accounting and goal setting; some overlap however none have been universally adopted. Additional tasks exist for different greenhouse gases resembling methane.

The Greenhouse Fuel Protocol is one such set of requirements, established by non-governmental organizations and industrial teams within the 1990s.

Corporations can report their progress in step with these requirements via non-profit CDP, previously generally known as the Carbon Disclosure Mission, which then ranks them. Norway’s Equinor comes first in its listing of 24 oil main corporations, however not all of them report in yearly.

(GRAPHIC: Huge oil rating by the CDP – right here)

There may be additionally the Process Pressure on Local weather associated Monetary Disclosures (TCFD), created by the G20’s Monetary Stability Board, in addition to business our bodies, in-house fashions at oil corporations and banks and third-party verifiers and consultants.

“There are a thousand methods to Paris,” London-based BP’s (BP.L) Chief Govt Bob Dudley mentioned at a Chatham Home occasion earlier this yr referring to the 2015 accord aiming to maintain world warming nicely under 2 levels.

BP Finance Chief Brian Gilvary advised Reuters BP would welcome extra consistency throughout the sector to point out what oil corporations are doing about emissions and that an business physique, the Oil and Fuel Local weather Initiative (OGCI), was discussing carbon accounting.

A plethora of third social gathering ESG verifier corporations have been rising with various methods of measuring ESG metrics, he mentioned, including that some such corporations would say to an oil firm, “We consider your rating is that this, and, by the way in which, for those who spend $50,000 we’ll present you how one can enhance that rating.”

UBS, with $831 billion of invested belongings, has $2 billion in its Local weather Conscious passive fairness technique, which is partially based mostly on an organization’s emissions reporting.

In that technique “we tilt in direction of corporations which might be higher acting on a spread of local weather metrics and away from corporations that don’t carry out so nicely on this respect,” Francis Condon, government director for sustainable investing, mentioned.

“We don’t wish to be accused of greenwashing or falling for it,” he mentioned, including that UBS often inspired corporations to organize for the local weather transition.

Utilizing a broad measure, world sustainable funding reached $30.1 trillion the world over’s 5 main markets on the finish of 2018, in line with the International Sustainable Funding Overview. This equates to between 1 / 4 and half of all belongings underneath administration, as a consequence of various estimates of that determine.

Condon mentioned most buyers have been nonetheless extra targeted on returns than wider sustainability standards however have been turning into involved that corporations could expose them to attainable future climate-related monetary losses.

“There’s a very restricted urge for food for giving up efficiency for greater ESG. The query is extra: is administration taking up dangers it could actually’t handle?”

To attempt to reply that query, the world’s greatest monetary service suppliers are investing in corporations which give ESG-related information.

This yr alone, Moody’s purchased Vigeo Eiris and 4 Twenty Seven, MSCI purchased Carbon Delta and the London Inventory Change purchased Past Scores. S&P acquired Trucost in 2016.

Unbiased local weather danger advisors Engaged Monitoring say they attracted two-thirds of their purchasers up to now yr. All six corporations present information, assessments and consulting on the local weather publicity of corporations or bonds.


A central situation, mentioned at European oil majors’ shareholder conferences this yr, is how they cope with the emissions attributable to the merchandise they promote, resembling gasoline or kerosene, that are generally known as Scope three emissions.

(GRAPHIC: Oil Majors’ Carbon emissions – right here)

Such emissions are usually round six instances bigger than the mixed emissions from oil corporations’ direct operations and energy provide, often known as Scope 1 and a pair of emissions, in line with Reuters calculations.

Even when an organization publishes Scope three information, there are 15 totally different classes based mostly on the Greenhouse Fuel Protocol. These embrace use of bought merchandise resembling gasoline alongside secondary elements resembling enterprise journey or worker commuting.

Constantine Pretenteris at Engaged Monitoring mentioned some corporations achieved a excessive rating for comprehensiveness by disclosing information for many of the Scope three classes, however disregarded the important thing ones, resembling emissions from use of their gasoline.

“We’d like to see a common customary which makes comparisons straightforward,” Sven Reinke of Moody’s mentioned. “It doesn’t totally exist nowadays.”


Nearly all of climate-related targets are based mostly on depth measures, which suggests absolute emissions can rise with rising manufacturing, even when the headline depth metric falls.

Complete recorded Scope three emissions from the world’s high public oil corporations are nonetheless rising, largely as a consequence of rising oil and gasoline output, in line with Reuters calculations based mostly on information carried on Refinitiv’s Eikon platform and firm web sites.

They confirmed mixed Scope three emissions recorded by BP, Royal Dutch Shell(RDSa.L), Exxon Mobil (XOM.N), ConocoPhillips’ (COP.N), Chevron (CVX.N), Eni (ENI.MI), Complete (TOTF.PA), Equinor (EQNR.OL) and Repsol (REP.MC) rose round 1.6% over 2018, after a 1% related rise the earlier yr.

Particular person figures range in line with the metrics an organization chooses to incorporate. Conoco mentioned its Scope three emissions had fallen 5%, whereas the opposite corporations’ particular person recorded Scope three emissions both rose or stayed roughly the identical.

Requested for remark, BP and Chevron pointed to absolute targets associated to their very own operations. Complete pointed to progress it had made in direction of reducing emissions depth per unit produced. Shell and Repsol referred to their short-term intensity-based targets and Equinor mentioned it couldn’t take duty for emissions it doesn’t management.

U.S. agency Exxon didn’t reply to a request for remark. Eni had no fast remark.

High oil corporations have boosted funding in renewable vitality and low-carbon know-how in recent times, significantly in Europe, however a lot greater sums are nonetheless going into creating oil and gasoline.

“We can’t change the patterns of consumption all over the world – we can’t make individuals fly much less. We will scale back the carbon depth of the merchandise we promote,” Shell Chief Govt Ben van Beurden mentioned in June.

Mark Lewis from BNP Paribas and a member of TCFD, mentioned general cuts have been what would depend in the long run. Repsol is presently the one main oil firm to have set absolute discount targets for all its output.

“The Paris Settlement is all a few carbon price range and that’s an absolute quantity. It’s not an depth quantity,” Lewis mentioned. “The environment works when it comes to absolutes not depth.”

Within the meantime, some buyers are avoiding oil corporations which others say must be supported for going additional than a lot of their friends.

London-based funding administration agency Sarasin & Companions mentioned in June it was promoting down its stake in Shell as a result of its spending plans have been out of synch with worldwide local weather targets.

FILE PHOTO: Guests are mirrored within the set up Mirror Maze by artist Es Devlin, on the Copeland Park in Peckham, south London, Britain September 21, 2016. REUTERS/Stefan Wermuth/File Picture

Requested for remark, Shell pointed to feedback from representatives of the pension funds of the Church of England and Britain’s authorities Setting company, which praised the corporate’s transparency and mentioned others ought to comply with its lead.

(GRAPHIC: European Carbon costs – right here)

Modifying by Philippa Fletcher

Our Requirements:The Thomson Reuters Belief Ideas.

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